– A recent study indicates that short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) pollution can increase the chances of hospitalization for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, according to the National Clean Bus Update. The study monitored 11.5 million Medicare participants in 204 urban U.S. counties. Researchers at Johns Hopkins University and Yale University found that for every 10 micrograms per cubic meter increase in PM 2.5, cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations increased by 11,000. Increases were highest in the Eastern United States, where many areas suffer from air quality problems. Researchers also revealed that every 10 micrograms per cubic meter increase in fine particulate matter was associated with a 1.28 percent increase in the risk of admission for heart failure, according to the report.